When teaching physical science, motion is by far my favorite unit. You can do so many fun experiments ranging from motion graphing and building rockets to Newton's laws demos. Any time you can incorporate graphing into the curriculum it is great since creating and reading graphs is a skill that will help students throughout both math and science.
One product you can use for motion graphing is PASCO's wireless motion sensor. This sensor works on bluetooth and is completely wireless, so students can move around the room without worrying about tripping over cords. If you have laptops you can even do your lab outside where you have more room to space out! Simply charge the motion sensor with a USB cord and it's ready to go.
To use the motion sensor, you need to download PASCO's free Match Graph software. (This was the only hiccup I had when using the motion sensor- if you are using school computers that require I.T. approval to download any software, you will have to put in a help desk ticket. Once it was installed by my tech department it worked like a breeze).
When you load Match Graph, you will see a main screen where you can switch between position-time graphs and velocity-time graphs. I always start with position-time graphs because they seem easier for the students to grasp. Next, have the students in each group type their name in the top so they can all take turns (more on this in a minute). When students are ready to begin, I have them hold a large whiteboard (any large flat surface works) in front of them- this seems to help the motion sensor detect them easily. The students will need about 4 meters of clearance behind them, so space your groups out around the room.
Once students hit record, a red line will appear on the screen and show their motion. The goal is for them to match the template shown on the screen. Students can change out between 9 different templates for each graph type. I like to let students play around with this lab before I've actually taught what position-time and velocity-time graphs look like. This allows students to use inquiry and figure out the difference between the two types of graphs.
Each time they take a turn Match Graph shows a score in the bottom right corner of the screen. This is GREAT for easy grading. All you have to do is walk around the room, have them pull up the scores under their name, and you can record their highest score. It gets competitive!
The front of the sensor turns 180 degrees, so you can turn the sensor so it faces up, place it on the ground, and measure the motion of objects in free fall. Have students explore gravity, air resistance, and gain a deeper understanding of slope. (I always try and time this unit at the same time students are learning slope in algebra). Match Graph is truly user friendly and you won't have issues with students trying to learn how to use it. Your students that are kinesthetic learners are never going to forget this lab!
Make sure to check out other resources PASCO has to offer on their website. In their digital library they have a TON of free labs you can download. Be sure to bookmark it for later!
(Note: This is a sponsored blog post from PASCO)
One of my favorite case studies to examine with students is the tragedy that occurred at Lake Nyos. Located in Camaroon, Africa, Lake Nyos is a lake that formed in a volcanic crater. While villagers thought the volcano was dormant, it was slowly releasing carbon dioxide into the lake. One night in 1986 the carbon dioxide built up enough that the lake overturned and all the carbon dioxide was released into the atmosphere. Since carbon dioxide is more dense than air, thousands of villagers and livestock died in their sleep that night of asphyxiation.
While it is a devastating story to learn about, it is good in the sense that it can be applied to so many science concepts. Biology teachers can bring it up when learning about the carbon cycle. Earth science teachers can discuss the story during their volcanoes unit. Physical science teachers can use it to introduce density of gases. It's a phenomena that is so versatile!
I begin the lesson by showing this video clip from National Geographic on Youtube. It gets the students 100% engaged and doesn't reveal why this mystery fog killed the villagers:
Following the video clip I have students read an article I wrote about what happened at Lake Nyos and the science concepts behind it. You can find the article HERE if you would like to download it (appropriate for grades 7-10).
Then at the end of class I like to end with a demo showing how carbon dioxide is truly more dense than air. All you need are 3 birthday candles, some clay or play-doh, a container, baking soda, and vinegar.
Cut two of the candles shorter so all the candles are different heights. Stick them to the bottom of a container with clay. Sprinkle the bottom of the container with baking soda and light the candles. Have students predict what will happen when you pour some vinegar into the container. Students will observe the lowest candle extinguishing first because the dense CO2 that is being formed stays nearest to the bottom of the container. (I do it under the document camera so all students can watch, but if you trust your students with matches you can have them do it in small lab groups instead).
I hope your students enjoy this lesson- I know mine do! It's simple, engaging, and a story your students won't forget.